Welding Knowledge - Part 5

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Basic Arc Welding Metallurgy


Metallurgy plays a crucial role in the arc welding process and a basic understanding of this role is necessary if welding engineers are to fulfil their responsibilities effectively.

Many learned texts have been published (ref 1,2 ) on welding metallurgy, particularly the excellent book written by John Lancaster, but very few approach the subject from a practical point of view. The majority of published work explains crack propagation, chemical reactions, alloy composition and heat flow in considerable detail but this document, part of the series published by Huntingdon Fusion Techniques Ltd, approaches the subject on a much more practical basis.

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Welding Knowledge - Part 4

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Welding can reduce the resistance to corrosion

Most industries using stainless steels do so because of their resistance to corrosion. Industry sectors such as dairy, food and pharmaceutical manufacturers and the semi-conductor producers are major users since the end products must be contamination free and the presence of any corrosion products can have serious consequences.

The Mechanism of Corrosion

Stainless steels and other alloys containing chromium owe their resistance to corrosion to the formation of a very thin (10-5 mm), transparent surface layer of chromium oxide.

This provides a passive film that acts as a barrier to penetration by an invasive environment. When heated to a high temperature in the presence of oxygen this film increases in thickness until it becomes visible – the colour becomes darker with increasing film thickness.


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Welding Knowledge - Part 3

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Small Diameter Tube Welding

Making butt welds in small diameter metal tubes presents problems not experienced with other applications. Control over consistency of deposit, particularly with diameters less than 15 mm, is difficult even when using a mechanised process. Perhaps more significantly the issue of adequate internal weld purging with inert gas can become a real headache.

As tube diameters increase, manual welding can be used with more confidence but the need to purge effectively to avoid oxidation at the weld root is crucial. This can lead to significant loss of corrosion resistance (refs 1 to 5) if critical elements such as chromium are present in the metal and since the majority of small tubes are destined for applications in aerospace, food and drink this can be serious.


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Welding Knowledge - Part 2

Introduction to Stainless Steels

It comes as a surprise to many that ‘stainless steel’ is not stainless. Discolouration is not uncommon and salt water environments in particular can give rise to corrosion: this is even noticeable at domestic level where dark spots appear caused by the mild salt solutions used during automatic dishwashing cycles.

The importance of stainless steel 1 is best reflected by the worldwide annual consumption which was reported at over 50 million tonnes in 2019. Generally recognised for its corrosion properties the material range is also widely used where strength coupled with elevated temperature resistance to oxidation.

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Conocimientos sobre soldadura – Parte 1

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Los principales procedimientos de soldadura por arco

Existen cuatro procedimientos básicos de soldadura que generan el calor necesario para fundir metales produciendo un arco eléctrico entre un electrodo y un metal. También se usan otros procedimientos por arco, pero tienen una aplicación limitada o carecen de las características de control y de calidad. La soldadura por arco, desarrollada inicialmente hacia finales del siglo 19, se convirtió rápidamente en un proceso comercialmente importante, especialmente en el sector de la construcción naval en la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

Un arco es una descarga de energía entre dos conductores a diferentes voltajes. En la soldadura esto se puede iniciar uniendo momentáneamente los conductores, un electrodo y los metales que se van a unir, para crear un cortocircuito y a continuación separarlos para producir un arco continuo. Es necesario tener experiencia para que los dos componentes no se peguen entre sí. El arco solo se puede mantener sobre una separación muy limitada y con la soldadura manual esto depende de la habilidad del operario. El desarrollo en las últimas décadas ha dado como resultado la producción de fuentes de alimentación sofisticadas para ayudar a estabilizar el arco. 

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